Energy systems modelling, analysis, and control

Project description

This project aims to develop models for all components of conventional power systems, as well as renewable energy systems, such as solar and wind power systems. The modelling of such systems includes the control mechanisms involved, such as exciters, governors, stabilisers and associated power electronics devices. The modelling is developed so that any faults in any components of  the systems are accounted for, that is the derived models are generic enough to accurately represent the dynamics of such systems with or without faults

Power systems are complex dynamic systems and in most part exhibit nonlinear behaviour. They are, by their operational and physical nature, prone to frequent faults, such as short circuit caused by lightening or objects (plants or animals) coming into contact with high voltage distribution lines. Also they operate under highly elaborate control and protection schemes, which comprise a very large numbers of sensors, actuators, circuit breakers, and relays. These devices, as well as the communication channels associated with them, often experience faults and malfunctions. Any fault or device failure has the undesirable effect of changing the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which may in some cases lead to instability or loss of generation with detrimental financial impact on suppliers and consumers alike.

The fault detection and identification project aims at using state estimation and observer theory to design fault diagnosis schemes for large-scale interconnected power systems. The schemes are required to detect and identify faults in any part of the power systems, such transmission and distribution lines, generators, exciters, governors and associated controls, in real time.  Linear and nonlinear fault detection schemes are considered. Both model-based and knowledge-based approaches are investigated.

This project contains a few sub-projects each dealing with a different control design problem as outlined below

Design of Power System Stabilisers:  This project involves the design of a controller that injects supplementary stabilising signal into the exciter to damp out intra-machine mechanical oscillations. Both conventional as well as modern designs are considered. The emphasis in this project is placed on stabilisation of multi-machine systems using locally available information only.

Voltage Stability: In the daily operation of large power systems, voltage stability is paramount. It is a measure of the ability to transfer reactive power from generation sources to loads during steady operating conditions. Under “abnormal” operating conditions, such as outages of generation or large loads, voltage stability may not be retained if the new equilibrium voltages post-outages are below acceptable level. This may lead to either partial or total collapse or blackout. The aim of this project is to use dynamical modelling to analyse the voltage dynamics of power systems undergoing large disturbances or load changes. An estimation of when the voltage will reach the level of collapse will then be determined using estimation and fault detection techniques.

Transient Stability: Transient stability is associated with large disturbances that cause the load angle of generators to grow in time to a level where synchronism, and thus stability of the entire system, is lost. This project aims at identifying such load angle excursions and to trigger control signals that would adjust governors’ actions and in extreme cases activate protection systems to initiate load shedding and tripping of circuit breakers.

Project team

Leader: Mohammad Aldeen

Students: Sajeeb Saha, Mohammad Abdolmaleki, Pejman Peidaee, Mohammad Mirzaei

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complex systems; large-scale systems; renewable energy; stationary power generation; Systems Theory